(answered) – 1) The “tree-line” or “timberline” is the elevation atDescriptionSolution downloadThe Question1) The ?tree-line? or ?timberline? is the elevation at which trees no longer grow. Look at any very tall mountain and you?ll see a clear demarcation point where trees essentially stop growing. This happens for a variety of reasons; temperature decreases with elevation, air pressure drops with elevation, as does the moisture content. The highest tree-line in the world is found near Navado Sajama in Bolivia, at an elevation of 5200 m. As for the Canadian Rockies, the tree-line in Banff is approximately 2400 m above sea level. The average day temperature in summer at Banff is 20C, and at Navado Sajama it is 7C. Calculate the average atmospheric pressure (as a ratio of that found at sea-level) at Navado Sajama and in Banff and comment on how important temperature and atmospheric pressure are to determining the tree-lines at these locations.2)?A scientist is measuring the random motion of 500 small particles in water at 20 C, in a long, very thin tube. She places all of the particles in a very small point in the middle of the horizontal tube and 60 seconds later, with the aid of a magical camera, she records all of their positions relative to the point of insertion.? Arbitrarily, particles to the left of the insertion point are registered as ?negative? and those to the right are ?positive?. She obtains the following table that records the number of particles observed at every approximate displacement.??????????????????????????????????numberapproximate displacement, x (mm)2-4005-30033-200118-10019001071003520093001400????? Determine:a) the mean displacement. Does this agree with what you would expect? Relatively speaking how far off is it? Give a reasonable source for this disagreement.b) the root mean square displacement.c) The diffusion coefficient (note the dimensionality of this problem)d) What particles might these be (see Table 13-3 in the text for diffusion coefficients)e) Use the Stokes-Einstein equation to estimate the diameter of these quasi-spherical particles. (you may need to consult table 12.1)Answers: Question 1-?Sajama is at approx 0.53 of an atmosphere and Banff is at 0.76 of an atmosphere. The interpretation regarding the meaing of the temperature and air pressure? is up to you. Moisture and access to sunlight must be key features!Question 2-(i) the mean displacement is 0.2 mm. (essentially zero for this measurement)????????????? (ii) the RMS displacement is 115.8mm????????????? (iii) D.12?10-10 m2/s????????????? (iv) probably a lysozyme for which D.19?10-10 m2/s????????????? (v) Diameter is approx 4 nm.-I know the answers, but I need to know the formulas and the process.?Trent University: PHYS-BIOL 1060HFormula Sheet?x= tan ?lstress ? shearG?=strain ? shearShear Strain:? shear ?1. GeneralWeight:Fg ? W = mg (SI units: newtons, N)GM 1 M 2r2Newton?s 2nd Law: F = ma (SI: N)2Kinetic Energy: E = 1 / 2mv (SI: joules, J)1 22Circle: Area= ?r = ?D4perimeter= 2?r = ?D2cylinder: Area= 2?rl + (2 ? ?r ) (shaft + bases)2volume= ?r lRectangle:Area= L ? Wperimeter= 2( L + W )22Sphere: Surface Area= 4?r = ?D4?r 3Volume=332Cube: Surface Area= 6L Volume= LGravitational Law:F=?2/3-law? surface area to mass relationship:A ? M 2/3?1/4-law? surface area to mass relationship:A? M5/8massmDensity: ? ==volume V?=F?l=Y= Y?Al0Breaking Stress:? max? shear =solid cylinder twist:Fshear?x=G= G?Al0G?r 3? twistFtngnt =2lhollow cylinder twist:Ftngnt =Elastic Energy stored in strain:
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