World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human subjects
When performing medical research involving human subjects, it is essential to adhere to specific ethical guidelines outlined in this article. A few examples of these guiding principles are respect for autonomy, beneficence, and non-maleficence. The World Medical Association (WMA) drafted the Declaration of Helsinki to serve as a comment of ethics for health stidies conducted on human research participants (Cantín, 2018). These principles apply to research conducted on human physical material and personal information.
Ethical issues in reproductive genetic carrier screening.
The article sheds light on various conditions that question how RCS reflects societal values. The article supports conducting RCS and breaks down the advantages that outweigh that it is an experiment that reflects good values. The authors argue that because screening can be frustrating for individuals with the genetic diseases that are being screened for, it is regarded morally sound to test only for genes linked to severe conditions. Also, it is important to consider ethical considerations while deciding how to fund RCS because public funding can be interpreted as an official stamp of approval for screening (Dive & Newson, 2020). An official, publicly supported screening program may offer benefits, but there may be disguised value implications with such support.
Is it ethical research for children? Reflection on research involving children.
The article discusses the Ethical Study Involving Children (ERIC) project highlighting the ethical implications and approaches when children are used as research subjects. When researching minors, researchers face many complex ethical problems and complications that go far beyond the purview of existing institutional review and governance mechanisms (Lee, 2020). Researchers, however, as a group, have a great deal of expertise in using common ethical standards in various contexts.
Research Involving Children and Adolescents in Situations of Violence: Ethical Aspects to be Considered
The article discusses the researcher’s essential of considering various ethical aspects in the planning and development of research that uses children who are victims of violence as subjects. The authors stress the importance of providing a safe space for open communication between the researcher and the research subject in which the participant feels comfortable disclosing their experiences with sexual abuse (Platt, 2022). This argument stresses the need for researchers to consider the wish to protect children and adolescents from the risks associated with research work.
Ethics: Electronic Surveillance of Nurses in the Workplace: Ethical Considerations.
According to nurses, the researchers evaluate the ethical considerations of the use of surveillance cameras with supporting information on how the use of cameras is ethical and why it is not ethical. Considering the diversity of the benefits and drawbacks associated with electronic workplace surveillance, this type of surveillance must adhere to ethical guidelines (Wallace, 2018). Using electronic monitoring of nurses in the workplace is not appropriate without conducting an appropriate needs assessment. Instead, it should be executed according to the requirements of the situation.
Cantín, M. (2018). World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human subjects. Reviewing the Latest Version. International Journal of Medical and Surgical Sciences, 1(4), 339–346. https://doi.org/10.32457/ijmss.2014.042
Dive, L., & Newson, A. J. (2020). Ethical issues in reproductive genetic carrier screening. Medical Journal of Australia. https://doi.org/10.5694/mja2.50789
Lee, S. (2020). Is it ethical research for children? Reflection on research involving children. Journal of School Social Work, 52, 29–51. https://doi.org/10.20993/jssw.52.2
Platt, V. B. (2022). Research Involving Children and Adolescents in Situations of Violence: Ethical Aspects to be Considered. SOJ Pediatrics and Clinical Neonatology, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.53902/sojpcn.2022.02.000514
Wallace, R. (2018). Ethics: Electronic Surveillance of Nurses in the Workplace: Ethical Considerations. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 23(2). https://doi.org/10.3912/ojin.vol23no02ethcol01
Summary of Ethical Approaches used in Research Articles
Ethical Issues in Genetic Research” by the National Human Genome Research Institute
The ethical issues surrounding genetic research are covered in this article. The authors contend that the autonomy of persons, beneficence, and non-maleficence should all be respected when doing genetic research. When genomes research is carried out on groups, like the ones represented in MalariaGEN, which are characterized by lower average income and literacy levels, many ethical considerations are highlighted. Such issues must be adequately addressed in such research, which is crucial (Nepi, 2019). According to the researcher’s experience, it is where ethics is ingrained in the design and implementation of such research initiatives that the ethical issues in genomics research can be best detected, examined, and solved.
The Use of Deception in Psychological Research” by Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair
The ethical ramifications of utilizing deception in psychological research are covered in this article. Psychologists can conduct more realistic studies using deception and examine phenomena that are otherwise impossible to explore under controlled conditions. Without a question, research that uses deception has broadened and improved the body of knowledge in psychology. Despite its advantages, deception can raise ethical issues and, if not employed appropriately, may negatively affect research subjects. While deception may be necessary for some circumstances, the author contends, researchers must take precautions to make sure that participants are not injured by the experience.
Research Involving Children: An Ethical Framework” by the Nuffield Council on Bioethics
The ethical issues of researching children are covered in this article. The authors contend that while children shouldn’t be subjected to study unless it is in their best interests, those who do it should take precautions to ensure the rights and well-being of those subjects.
Genetic and Genomic Healthcare: Ethical Issues of Importance to Nurses
New methods for health promotion, maintenance, and treatment have become possible since the human genome was fully sequenced in 2003. New gene-based technologies are being developed for the screening, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of both rare and common diseases as a result of genetic research, which is also improving our understanding of the genetic components of common diseases including cancer, diabetes, and stroke. Given their position at the center of patient care, nurses will actively engage in genetic and genomic-based practice activities like gathering family history, gaining informed consent for genetic testing, and delivering gene-based therapies. All nurses must be able to properly transmit genetic and genomic information to patients while being aware of related ethical concerns under this new model of healthcare. The article lists six genetic and genomic medical procedures that raise ethical concerns for nurses. It provides an overview of existing and forthcoming ethical challenges for each activity mentioned. In order to best serve the needs of their patients, families, and society, nurses should incorporate thorough and up-to-date knowledge of genetics and genomics into their practice, according to the approaches presented in the article.
Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects” by the World Medical Association
The ethical guidelines that must be observed while using human subjects in medical research are outlined in this article. Respect for individual autonomy, beneficence, and non-maleficence are some of these principles (Hong et al., 2019). Physicians who take part in medical research have a responsibility to safeguard the lives, health, dignity, integrity, and right to self-determination of research participants. Medical research involving human participants must adhere to commonly recognized scientific standards, be supported by competent laboratories and, when necessary, animal testing, as well as a complete understanding of the scientific literature and other pertinent sources of information. Respect must be shown for the well-being of animals utilized in research.
Hong, J. Y., Han, K., Jung, J. H., & Kim, J. S. (2019). Association of exposure to diagnostic low-dose ionizing radiation with risk of cancer among youths in South Korea. JAMA network open, 2(9), e1910584-e1910584.
Nepi, L. (2019). Ethical issues concerning the informed consent process in paediatric clinical trials: European guidelines and recommendations on minor’s assent and parental permission. BioLaw Journal-Rivista di BioDiritto, (1S), 53-63.