1) Minimum 6 full pages Part 1: minimum 1 page Part 1 (a) : minimum 1 page Part 2: minimum 2 page Part 2 (a) : minimum 2 page Submit 1 document per part 2)¨******APA norms, please use headers All par Nursing Assignment Help

1) Minimum 6 full pages

Part 1: minimum 1 page

Part 1 (a) : minimum 1 page

Part 2: minimum 2 page

Part 2 (a) : minimum 2 page

Submit 1 document per part

2)¨******APA norms, please use headers

All paragraphs must be narrative and cited in the text- each paragraphs

Bulleted responses are not accepted

Dont write in the first person

Dont copy and pase the questions.

Answer the question objectively, do not make introductions to your answers, answer it when you start the paragraph

Submit 1 document per part

3) It will be verified by Turnitin and SafeAssign

4) Minimum 24 references not older than 5 years

Minimum 3 references per part

5) Identify your answer with the numbers, according to the question.

Example:

Q 1. Nursing is XXXXX

Q 2. Health is XXXX

6) You must name the files according to the part you are answering:

Example:

Part 1.doc

Part 2.doc

_____________________________________________________

You must answer the part 1 questions posted, 2 times.

You must submit 2 documents (each one 1 page= Part 1 and Part 1a)

Copy and paste will not be admitted.

You should address the questions with different wording, different references, but always, objectively answering the questions.

Case study

Shelly is a 4-year-old preschooler who lives with her parents and younger brother. She and her brother attend a local daycare center during the week while their parents are at work. In the evenings she and her brother take a bath and then their parents read to them before bedtime at 8 PM. Shelly’s daycare class includes many children her age and she enjoys playing outside with them. Although snack times are planned, Shelly would rather play and does not always finish her beverages.

Shelly’s mother calls the clinic and tells the nurse practitioner that Shelly has been “running a fever of 101 F for the past 2 days” and although her temperature decreases to 37.2 C (99 F) with Tylenol, it returns to 38.4 C (101 F) within 4 hours of each dose. Further, her mother says that Shelly complains that “it hurts when I pee-pee”. Shelly’s mother also has noticed that her daughter seems to be in the bathroom “every hour”. She makes an appointment to see the nurse practitioner this afternoon.

The potential diagnosis is UTI.

1. What other assessment data would be helpful for the nurse practitioner to have?

2. What are the organisms most likely to cause an UTI?

3. What is the pharmacological treatment for Shelly? Keep in mind safe dosing.

4. What are the teaching priorities for Shelly and her mother prior to her discharge from the clinic?

Please keep it concise. 1 initial post and 2 replies using peer-reviewed references published within 5 years.

________________________________________________________________

Part 2:

You must answer the part 1 question posted, 2 times.

You must submit 2 documents (each one 2 pages= Part 2 and Part 2a)

Copy and paste will not be admitted.

You should address the questions with different wording, different references, but always, objectively answering the questions.

S.H., age 47, reports difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep. These problems have been ongoing for many years, but she has never mentioned them to her health care provider. She has generally “lived with it” and selftreated the problem with OTC Tylenol PM. Currently, she is also experiencing perimenopausal symptoms of night sweats and mood swings. Current medical problems include hypertension controlled with medications. Past medical history includes childhood illnesses of measles, chickenpox, and mumps. Family history is positive for diabetes on the maternal side and hypertension on the paternal side. Her only medication is an angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitor and diuretic combination for hypertension control. She generally does not like taking medication and does not take any other OTC products.

Diagnosis: InsomnIa

1. List specific goals of therapy for S.H.

2. What drug therapy would you prescribe? Why?

3. What are the parameters for monitoring the success of the therapy?

4. Discuss specific patient education based on the prescribed therapy

5. List one or two adverse reactions for the selected agent that would cause you to change therapy.

6. What would be the choice for second-line therapy?

7. What OTC and/or alternative medicines might be appropriate for this patient?

8. What dietary and lifestyle changes might you recommend?

9. Describe one or two drug–drug or drug–food interactions for the selected agent.

Expert Solution Preview

Introduction:

In this case study, we are presented with two different scenarios involving patients seeking medical assistance for their respective conditions. The first scenario involves a 4-year-old preschooler named Shelly, who is experiencing symptoms suggestive of a urinary tract infection (UTI). The second scenario revolves around a 47-year-old woman named S.H., who is struggling with insomnia and perimenopausal symptoms. In both cases, we will explore the relevant assessment data, potential diagnosis, appropriate treatment options, teaching priorities, and goals of therapy.

Part 1:

1. What other assessment data would be helpful for the nurse practitioner to have?

To further assess Shelly’s condition and confirm the diagnosis of UTI, the nurse practitioner should obtain the following additional assessment data:

– A detailed medical history focusing on any previous history of UTIs, recurrent infections, or abnormalities of the urinary tract.
– Current symptoms and their duration, such as dysuria (painful urination), frequency, urgency, suprapubic pain, or hematuria.
– Any recent history of antibiotic use, as it may affect the accuracy of test results.
– Information on Shelly’s fluid intake and output, including the volume and frequency of urination.
– Presence of systemic symptoms like fever, lethargy, or nausea/vomiting.
– Physical examination findings, including signs of abdominal tenderness, enlarged bladder, or costovertebral angle tenderness.
– Urinalysis and urine culture results to confirm the presence of bacteria and identify the causative organism.

2. What are the organisms most likely to cause a UTI?

UTIs can be caused by various microorganisms, but the most common etiological agents are bacteria. The most frequent bacterial species implicated in UTIs include:

– Escherichia coli (E. coli): It is the most common cause of UTIs, particularly in uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections.
– Klebsiella pneumoniae: This organism is associated with complicated UTIs, especially in patients with structural abnormalities or indwelling catheters.
– Proteus mirabilis: It is frequently found in complicated UTIs and often associated with the formation of urinary calculi.
– Enterococcus faecalis: This bacteria is commonly involved in UTIs associated with catheterization or genitourinary tract instrumentation.
– Staphylococcus saprophyticus: It is a common cause of UTIs, primarily affecting young sexually active women.

3. What is the pharmacological treatment for Shelly? Keep in mind safe dosing.

The pharmacological treatment for Shelly’s UTI involves administering an appropriate antibiotic. The choice of antibiotic depends on the suspected organism, local resistance patterns, and the patient’s age. In this case, considering Shelly is a preschooler, oral antibiotics with effective urinary concentrations and safety profiles should be preferred. Some commonly prescribed antibiotics for pediatric UTIs include:

– Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX): An initial empirical treatment option for uncomplicated UTIs, but its use is limited by increasing resistance rates.
– Cephalexin or amoxicillin/clavulanate: These options are often used as an alternative to TMP/SMX in areas with high resistance rates.
– Cefixime or cefuroxime: Suitable options for community-acquired UTIs, particularly if a broader spectrum of coverage is necessary.
– Nitrofurantoin: It is used for lower urinary tract infections and should be avoided if pyelonephritis is suspected.

Safe dosing must be considered, taking into account the patient’s weight, age, and renal function, and following the appropriate pediatric guidelines. Regular monitoring of response to therapy is essential to ensure effectiveness and assess for any adverse effects.

4. What are the teaching priorities for Shelly and her mother prior to her discharge from the clinic?

Prior to discharge, the nurse practitioner should prioritize the following teachings for Shelly and her mother:

– Emphasize the importance of completing the full course of antibiotics as prescribed, even if Shelly’s symptoms improve before completing the course.
– Educate on proper hygiene practices, such as wiping from front to back, regular handwashing, and avoiding bubble baths or irritating substances.
– Encourage adequate fluid intake to promote urinary flushing and help prevent future UTIs.
– Highlight the signs and symptoms of recurrent or worsening infection that should prompt immediate medical attention.
– Provide information regarding prevention strategies like avoiding constipation, promoting regular voiding habits, and minimizing exposure to potential irritants.
– Address any concerns or misconceptions regarding UTIs and their treatment.

Part 2:

1. List specific goals of therapy for S.H.

The specific goals of therapy for S.H.’s insomnia may include:

– Improving the quality and duration of sleep.
– Reducing the frequency and intensity of nocturnal awakenings.
– Alleviating associated symptoms such as night sweats and mood swings.
– Enhancing daytime functioning and overall well-being.
– Minimizing the risk of adverse effects from pharmacological interventions.
– Promoting healthy sleep patterns and behaviors.

2. What drug therapy would you prescribe? Why?

The choice of drug therapy for insomnia depends on factors such as the underlying cause, patient characteristics, potential drug interactions, and patient preference. In S.H.’s case, considering her perimenopausal symptoms and hypertension, a non-benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic such as zolpidem (Ambien) or eszopiclone (Lunesta) may be prescribed. These medications have a shorter half-life and carry a lower risk of hangover or residual sedation compared to benzodiazepines. They can promote sleep onset and maintenance without disrupting sleep architecture.

3. What are the parameters for monitoring the success of the therapy?

The success of therapy for insomnia can be assessed by monitoring the following parameters:

– Improvement in sleep latency (time taken to fall asleep) and sleep efficiency (percentage of time asleep while in bed).
– Reduction in the frequency and duration of nocturnal awakenings.
– Increased total sleep time and improvements in subjective sleep quality.
– Resolution or reduction of associated symptoms like night sweats and mood swings.
– Enhanced daytime functioning, including improvements in alertness, concentration, and quality of life.
– Regular evaluation of vital signs, including blood pressure, to assess the impact of medication on hypertension management.

4. Discuss specific patient education based on the prescribed therapy.

When providing patient education to S.H. regarding her prescribed therapy, the following points should be addressed:

– Detailed instructions on medication administration, emphasizing the importance of taking the medication as prescribed and avoiding alcohol or other sedating substances.
– Educate S.H. about the potential side effects, such as drowsiness, dizziness, or headache, and advise her to report any concerning or persistent adverse effects promptly.
– Highlight the importance of maintaining good sleep hygiene practices, including consistent sleep schedules, creating a comfortable sleep environment, and avoiding stimulating activities before bedtime.
– Stress the significance of addressing perimenopausal symptoms holistically, addressing lifestyle modifications, stress management techniques, and non-pharmacological interventions like regular exercise, relaxation techniques, and cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I).
– Encourage S.H. to keep a sleep diary to monitor sleep patterns, identify potential triggers, and assess the effectiveness of therapy.

5. List one or two adverse reactions for the selected agent that would cause you to change therapy.

Potential adverse reactions of selected non-benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotics like zolpidem or eszopiclone that may warrant therapy alteration include:

– Paradoxical reactions: In some cases, these medications can induce excitability, increased anxiety, restlessness, or worsening of insomnia. If such reactions occur, it may be necessary to switch to alternative treatment options.
– Memory impairment: Sleep medications can cause anterograde amnesia, leading to difficulty remembering events that occurred after taking the medication. If memory impairment is severe or persistent, it may indicate the need for a different approach to insomnia management.

6. What would be the choice for second-line therapy?

If non-benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotics prove ineffective, poorly tolerated, or contraindicated, second-line therapies for insomnia may include:

– Benzodiazepine receptor agonists such as temazepam or estazolam, which provide similar effects to non-benzodiazepines but carry a higher risk of tolerance, dependency, and withdrawal.
– Antidepressants with sedating properties, like trazodone or doxepin, which can be beneficial for primary insomnia or insomnia comorbid with depression.
– Melatonin agonists such as ramelteon or tasimelteon, which are indicated for sleep-onset insomnia and mimic the effects of endogenous melatonin.
– Consideration of referral to a sleep specialist for further evaluation and management.

7. What OTC and/or alternative medicines might be appropriate for this patient?

In addition to pharmacological options, S.H. may consider certain OTC and alternative medicines to manage her symptoms of insomnia and perimenopause. Some options that can be discussed with her include:

– Melatonin: A naturally occurring hormone that regulates the sleep-wake cycle. Melatonin supplements may aid in sleep initiation and maintenance.
– Herbal remedies: Certain herbs, such as valerian root or chamomile, have mild sedative properties and are commonly used as natural sleep aids.
– Relaxation techniques: Non-pharmacological interventions like progressive muscle relaxation, deep breathing exercises, or guided imagery can promote sleep.
– Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I): This evidence-based approach addresses maladaptive behaviors and negative thought patterns that contribute to insomnia.

It is important to educate S.H. about the limited scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of most OTC and alternative treatments. Caution should be exercised, particularly in conjunction with prescribed medications, as there is potential for interactions and adverse effects.

8. What dietary and lifestyle changes might you recommend?

Dietary and lifestyle modifications that can potentially enhance sleep quality and alleviate perimenopausal symptoms for S.H. include:

– Restricting caffeine and alcohol intake, especially in the evening, as they can interfere with sleep.
– Promoting regular exercise, preferably earlier in the day, to improve sleep patterns.
– Establishing a consistent sleep routine, including a relaxing bedtime routine and ensuring a cool, quiet, and dark sleeping environment.
– Managing stress through stress reduction techniques such as mindfulness exercises, yoga, or meditation.
– Addressing perimenopausal symptoms specifically through well-balanced nutrition, including a diet rich in phytoestrogens (e.g., soy products), calcium, and vitamin D. Collaborating with a registered dietitian is advised to personalize recommendations based on S.H.’s specific needs.

9. Describe one or two drug-drug or drug-food interactions for the selected agent.

One potential drug-drug interaction for zolpidem or eszopiclone is with CNS depressants, such as opioids or benzodiazepines. Concurrent use may result in increased sedation and respiratory depression, necessitating close monitoring and dose adjustments.

Another important interaction to consider is with medications that inhibit hepatic enzymes involved in the metabolism of zolpidem or eszopiclone, such as ketoconazole or fluconazole. Inhibition of these enzymes can lead to increased drug levels, higher risks of adverse effects, and prolonged sedation. Dose adjustments or alternative therapies should be considered in such cases.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, assessing and determining appropriate treatments for UTIs in pediatric patients and insomnia in adults require a comprehensive understanding of the patients’ specific conditions and needs. The nurse practitioner must collect thorough assessment data, consider safe dosing guidelines, choose appropriate pharmacological therapies, and provide comprehensive patient education. The goal is to achieve positive outcomes, minimize potential adverse effects, and empower the patients to actively participate in their care and manage their respective conditions effectively.

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